A+ » VCE » Maths Methods U3 & 4 Master Notes » A3 Calculus » Exponential Functions

Exponential Functions

APlusPal Logo 512

6.1 Antiderivatives of Functions

Antiderivatives of Specific Functions

  • We will be looking at antiderivatives of polynomial, exponential and trigonometric functions.
  • The formulas are as below:
i) Polynomial functions

\int x^{n} d x=\frac{1}{n+1} x^{n+1}+c \quad,\ n \neq-1

\int x^{-1} d x=\int \frac{1}{x} d x=\ln |x|+c

Note: Notice that in there is an absolute value over to make the result fit the domain for all logarithmic functions is (0,\ +\infty), and x=0 is not possible in the first place as it would make \frac{1}{x} undefined.

ii) Exponential functions
Read More »6.1 Antiderivatives of Functions

3.3 Differentiation Rules for Exponentials and Logarithms

Differentiation Rules for Exponentials and Logarithms

  • The other rules regarding differentiation such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division of functions, chain rule etc. applies too.
  • All of these rules can be proven via first principles, but it is not required.
  • The basic rules in this section are:

i) If f(x)=a^{x}, \text { then } f^{\prime}(x)=a^{x} \ln a

ii) If f(x)=\log _{a} x, \text { then } f^{\prime}(x)=\frac{1}{x}(\ln a)^{-1}

where n \neq 0, n \in R (or n \in R \backslash\{0\})

  • Applying the rules to natural exponential and logarithm functions (i.e. a=e), yields:
Read More »3.3 Differentiation Rules for Exponentials and Logarithms

3.2 Index Laws

The Exponential Function’s Algebraic Properties

  • There are six properties in exponentials to consider:

i) a^{x} \times a^{y} = a^{x+y}

ii) a^{x} {\div} a^{y} = a^{x-y}

iii) (a^{x})^{y}=a^{xy}

Read More »3.2 Index Laws

1.3 Exponential Functions [Free]

The Exponential Function

  • The exponential function is defined as follows:

y=a^x, where a \in R^+\backslash {1}.

Note:a \in R^+\backslash {1}’ means that could be any positive number, excluding 1.


9=3^{2}=3 \times 3 is equivalent to log_{3}9=2.

8=16^{\frac{3}{4}}=\sqrt[4]{16^{3}}=\sqrt{\sqrt{16 \times 16 \times 16}}.

Graph & Properties

Read More »1.3 Exponential Functions [Free]