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# FM Interpretation

## 1.1 Straight Line Graphs

### Straight Line Graphs

• Relationships of the form: y=mx+c, where m is the gradient and c is the y-intercept, can be modelled graphically as a straight line.

Example

Above is the graph for the linear relationship: y=-2x+1

### Intercepts

• Two points which are often of interest in graphs are the points at which they cross the x-axis, and where they cross the y-axis. These are known as the x-intercept and y-intercept, respectively.
• To find the x-intercept given a formula, set y to 0 and solve for x.
• To find the y-intercept given a formula, set x to 0 and solve for y.
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## 2.8 Non-Causal Relationships

### Observed Association

• The associations we find by collecting data and analysing are known as observed associations, as this is what we see.
• It is worth noting an observed association does not necessarily mean there is an actual relationship between the two variables in question, or that their relationship is causal (as we will explore further in this topic).
• An observed association may be the result of:
• An actual relationship of some form between the variables.
• Chance
• Poor experimental design